Authors: Daly KA, Liu S, Agrawal V, Brown BN, Johnson SA, Medberry CJ, Badylak SF.
Title: Damage associated molecular patterns within xenogeneic biologic scaffolds and their effects on host remodeling.
Summary: The immune response is an important determinant of the downstream remodeling of xenogeneic biologic scaffolds in vivo. Pro-inflammatory responses have been correlated with encapsulation and a foreign body reaction, while anti-inflammatory reactions are associated with constructive remodeling. However, the bioactive and bioinductive molecules within the extracellular matrix (ECM) that induce this polarization are unclear, although it is likely that cellular remnants such as damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) retained within the scaffold may play a role. The present study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of common ECM scaffolds. Results showed that tissue source, decellularization method and chemical crosslinking modifications affect the presence of the well characterized DAMP – HMGB1. In addition, these factors were correlated with differences in cell proliferation, death, secretion of the chemokines CCL2 and CCL4, and up regulation of the pro-inflammatory signaling receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Inhibition of HMGB1 with glycyrrhizin increased the pro-inflammatory response, increasing cell death and up regulating chemokine and TLR4 mRNA expression. The present study suggests the importance of HMGB1 and other DAMPS as bioinductive molecules within the ECM scaffold. Identification and evaluation of other ECM bioactive molecules will be an area of future interest for new biomaterial development.
Source: Biomaterials. 2012 Jan;33(1):91-101. Epub 2011 Oct 2.